For developers: Building Gambit from source

This section covers instructions for building Gambit from source. This is for those who are interested in developing Gambit, or who want to play around with the latest features before they make it into a pre-compiled binary version.

This section requires at least some familiarity with programming. Most users will want to stick with binary distributions; see Downloading Gambit for how to get the current version for your operating system.

General information

Gambit uses the standard autotools mechanism for configuring and building. This should be familiar to most users of Un*ces and MacOS X.

If you are building from a source tarball, you just need to unpack the sources, change directory to the top level of the sources (typically of the form gambit-xx.y.z), and do the usual

sudo make install

Command-line options are available to modify the configuration process; do ./configure –help for information. Of these, the option which may be most useful is to disable the build of the graphical interface

By default Gambit will be installed in /usr/local. You can change this by replacing configure step with one of the form

./configure --prefix=/your/path/here


The graphical interface relies on external calls to other programs built in this process, especially for the computation of equilibria. It is strongly recommended that you install the Gambit executables to a directory in your path!

Building from git repository

If you want to live on the bleeding edge, you can get the latest version of the Gambit sources from the Gambit repository on, via

git clone git://
cd gambit

After this, you will need to set up the build scripts by executing

automake --add-missing

For this, you will need to have automake, autoconf, and libtool2 installed on your system.

At this point, you can then continue with the configuration and build stages as in the previous section.

In the git repository, the branch master always points to the latest development version. New development should in general always be based off this branch. Branches labeled maintVV, where VV is the version number, point to the latest commit on a stable version; so, for example, maint13 refers to the latest commit for Gambit version 13.x.x. Bug fixes should typically be based off of this branch.

Supported compilers

Currently, gcc is the only compiler supported. The version of gcc needs to be new enough to handle templates correctly. The oldest versions of gcc known to compile Gambit are 3.4.6 (Linux, Ubuntu) and 3.4.2 (MinGW for Windows, Debian stable).

If you wish to use another compiler, the most likely stumbling block is that Gambit uses templated member functions for classes, so the compiler must support these. (Version of gcc prior to 3.4 do not, for example.)

For Windows users

For Windows users wanting to compile Gambit on their own, you’ll need to use either the Cygwin or MinGW environments. We do compilation and testing of Gambit on Windows using MinGW, which can be gotten from We prefer MinGW over Cygwin because MinGW will create native Windows applications, whereas Cygwin requires an extra compatibility layer.

For OS X users

For building the command-line tools only, one should follow the instructions for Un*x/Linux platforms above. make install will install the command-line tools into /usr/local/bin (or the path specified in the configure step).

To build the graphical interface, wxWidgets 2.9.5 or higher is recommended, although 2.8.12 should also be suitable. (The interface will build with wxWidgets 2.9.4, but there is a bug in wxWidgets involving drag-and-drop which renders the graphical interface essentially unusable.)

Snow Leopard (OS X 10.8) users will have to take some extra steps to build wxWidgets if 2.8.12 is used. wxWidgets 2.8.12 requires the 10.6 SDK to build the using Cocoa; this has been removed by Apple in recent editions of XCode. Download and unpack the 10.6 SDK from an earlier XCode version into /Applications/ With that in place, unpack the wxWidgets sources, and from the root directory of the wxWidgets sources, do:

mkdir build-debug
cd build-debug
arch_flags="-arch i386" CFLAGS="$arch_flags" CXXFLAGS="$arch_flags" \
   CPPFLAGS="$arch_flags" LDFLAGS="$arch_flags" OBJCFLAGS="$arch_flags" \
   OBJCXXFLAGS="$arch_flags" \
   ../configure  \
   --with-macosx-version-min=10.6 \
   --with-macosx-sdk=/Applications/ \
   --prefix="$(pwd)" --disable-shared --enable-debug --enable-unicode

Then, when configuring Gambit, use:

arch_flags="-arch i386" CFLAGS="$arch_flags" CXXFLAGS="$arch_flags" \
   CPPFLAGS="$arch_flags" LDFLAGS="$arch_flags" OBJCFLAGS="$arch_flags" \
   OBJCXXFLAGS="$arch_flags" \
   ./configure --with-wxdir=WXPATH/build-debug
make osx-bundle

where WXPATH is the path at which you have the wxWidgets sources unpacked. These steps are not required for wxWidgets 2.9.5 or higher.

This produces an application in the current directory, which can be run from its current location, or copied elsewhere in the disk (such as /Applications). The application bundle includes the command-line executables.

The graphical interface and wxWidgets

Gambit requires wxWidgets version 2.8.0 or higher for the graphical interface, although 2.9.5 or higher is recommended. See the wxWidgets website at to download this if you need it. Packages of this should be available for most Un*x users through their package managers (apt or rpm). Note that you’ll need the appropriate -dev package for wxWidgets to get the header files needed to build Gambit.

Un*x users, please note that Gambit at this time only supports the GTK port of wxWidgets.

If wxWidgets it isn’t installed in a standard place (e.g., /usr or /usr/local), you’ll need to tell configure where to find it with the –with-wx-prefix=PREFIX option, for example:

./configure --with-wx-prefix=/home/mylogin/wx

Finally, if you don’t want to build the graphical interface, you can either (a) simply not install wxWidgets, or (b) pass the argument –disable-gui to the configure step, for example,

./configure --disable-gui

This will just build the command-line tools, and will not require a wxWidgets installation.

Building the Python extension

The Python extension for Gambit is in src/python in the Gambit source tree. Prerequisite packages include setuptools, Cython, IPython, and scipy.

Building the extension follows the standard approach:

cd src/python
python build
sudo python install

There is a set of test cases in src/python/gambit/tests. These can be exercised via nosetests (requires Python package nose):

cd src/python/gambit/tests

Once installed, simply import gambit in your Python shell or script to get started.